Abrash : A change in the color of the rug due
to a difference in the wool or dye batch or say change or variation
in the color of a rug due to differences in the wool or dye bath.
The effect of abrash is subtle shading differences.
Antique Wash : A washing technique to make rug look antique.
Reproduction : These are the rugs that are designed and washed
in such a way to give antique look.We call this replicas of antique
Area Rug : A center pc rug laid on floor is called area rug.
These are normally 4x6, 5x8, 6x9 and so on.
Art Leather : Artificial leather, not real leather.
Artificial Silk: A man-made fiber to resemble silk, very durable;
other names used are rayon and viscose. It is soft to the touch
and more affordable than the expensive silk originals . Very commonly
called Art.Silk Yarn/Faux Silk
All-Over Design : A pattern which is repeated throughout the
field. No central medallion is present or to be more clear Rug
pattern that is consistent throughout the field of the rug; not
featuring a central medallion or border. A herati pattern is a
good example for an all-over design.
Aubuson : We call this a design. Aubuson design. Fine flat carpets
woven in France from the 15th to 19th Centuries. They were derived
from Moorish weaving with the assistance of Architects and Artists
of the royal court. A center of French carpet production which
began in the mid 17th century. Many tapestry woven rugs were woven
in the 18th and 19th centuries and generally those have designs
of flowers and bouquets and architectural motifs
Background color :This is also called base color. Some times
background and base colors are same and are being divided by border.
The dominant color in the background of the rug. The most widely
used background colors are red, blue, beige, and yellow. These
colors range in all shades and hues.
Bhadohi : A small district in Uttar Pradesh, India. North Indian
20th century weaving town.
Bijar : Also called Bidgar, normally a design.
Berber : Term popularly used to refer to a natural colored look
of carpeting. This style has been developed commercially by carpet
: Carpets composed of more than one kind of fiber. Blended wool
of Indian wool and Newzealand wool are being used to make a carpet
: A design that surrounds the field in an oriental rug.
(Persian for "bush") A pear-shaped figure usually used
in the field of an all-over repeat layout. There are many versions
of boteh from geometric to curvilinear and simple to complex. Boteh
has been thought to symbolize a leaf, a bush, a flame, or a pinecone.
: The design which forms the outside edge of a rug and surrounds
the field. Sometimes colors of Border and Base/Background are same.
Test : This terst is normally made in case of silk yarn, to check
its originality. Sometimes wool are also being passed under this
test. A small tuft of fibers from a rug may be burned to test for
its content. For example cotton has a vegetable smell when burned.
Wool smells faintly like hair. Silk smells distinctly like human
hair when burned.
(also Bokhara and Bocarra) : Design pattern which typically feature
rows of repeating motifs or guls.
: Caucasian rugs usually have geometric designs and bright lively
colors. Rugs are most frequently doubled wefted and usually woven
on either a full wool foundation or on wool warps with cotton wefts.
Warps are undyed.
Dyes : Modern synthetic dyes used in rugs woven after 1935.
: Non-traditional styles of rugs that range from shag and braided
rugs to pile-weave rugs with geometric or modern patterns.
Wash : The application is done in order to soften the colors, the
wool and increase the sheen of the pile.
: Blue/red turkoman carpets
Backed Rug : Normally on the back of an Indian handmade tufted rug.
This is sticked with latex so that the pile holds.
Dyes : Chrome dyes are colorfast (any dye that retains its intensity
despite exposure to light and washing), and are produced in an infinite
variety of attractive colors and shades. This is Modern synthetic
: Cotton is a natural fiber of great durability and strength. The
main material used in the foundation of handmade rugs is cotton
yarn. This is the most preferable base adopted in handtufted, handknotted,
indo-tibetian, shaggy and such other floor coverings.
:These are the main part of the Rug.
made Rugs : When the rugs are made as per the design, colors and
size of particular demand, they are called custom made design rugs.
Cut Pile :
Cut-pile is a smooth finish created by cutting off the tops of
the wool loops. The cut loops are then twisted to make tufts of
yarn that stand erect, creating a soft even surface. Also known
as 'velour' or 'velvet' pile.
measure by which the quality of the rug's construction is judged.
This is determined by two factors: number of knots and the height
of the pile in a given area, in case of hanknotted, and tufting
line in case of handtufted. The more densely or tightly packed
the yarn is, the more luxurious the pile will feel and the better
the rug will wear.
(Dhurie) : A floor covering which is flat is called dhurries.
India is famous for this floor coverings. These are, usually made
of wool or cotton. Type of Kilim.
Dyes : Dyes are used in coloring pile materials such as wool,
silk and cotton. There are two types of dyes: Natural Dyes and
Synthetic Dyes. Azo free dyes are also being done, but these are
quite expensive than normal synthetic dyes.
When carving is made around any design or symbol to enhance the
look of the rug, it is called embossing.
: A Rug that describes any rug without pile, normally called dhurry
Fringe : Warps
extending from the ends of a rug which are treated in several
ways to prevent the wefts and knots from unravelling. Warps extending
from the ends of an area rug, which are treated in several ways
to prevent the wefts and knots from unravelling. Today, artificial
fringe is added to some handtufted rugs, to give a knotted look.
Indo Gabbeh 5/32 Knots : In India, it’s the design which
shows birds/animals with bold abstract patters or naïve designs
and used to be considered too crude to be worth trading but recently
their artistic value has been recognized. Gabeh Design made in
India is Indo-Gabeh. Designs made from this knotting system are
: Panel designs throughout the field woven with floral motifs,
particularly found in a Persian Bahktiari.
Gerus : Bijar
: Small pile-weaving, narrow and rectangular in shape, suspended
in the tent-entrance on a rod about 25cm. above the ground to
keep out dirt and animals. Visually, such weavings are indistinguishable
from torbas and according to Azadi in Turkmen Carpets, only four
examples are known.
(Gul) : Flower, rose, a name etc.
: West Anatolian town classical prayer rugs.
: In Gwalior artificial silk rugs are made. These are also called
Hand Spun :
Nomally this is a process done in pile material or say in wool only.
This method is used when trying to create unique textured effects.
: The most expensive and longest to make, hand-knotted rugs are
traditionally made with wool or silk. Various qualities represents
the design pattern, density and look.The weaver loops wool or silk
around the warps one at a time, creating a thick pile. Cotton yarn
is then woven through the warps to hold them together. Rug made
by weavers who knot pile yarns around the warp fibers that run the
length of the rug. Generally, the more knots per square inch, the
more valuable the rug. Generally the cotton yarns are tied off to
form a decorative fringe. www.handknotted-rugs.com
Rugs woven on a hand loom. These area rugs are made on a cottage
loom that is operated by hand. The warps are set on the loom frame
and the weft is physically woven over the warp using shuttles.
Rug : Where a Rug is made totally or majorily with handwork, it
is called handmade rug.There are different types of hand-made area
rugs: knotted, tufted, hooked, looped and flat weave. www.handmade-carpets.com
: Hand-tufted rugs are made much like hand-hooked rugs, except that
the loops are sheared to create a flat surface. Tufted rugs can
be made with combinations of fibers, and offer a great value. This
is mostly preferred in todays scenario, being faster production
and can have similar design of handknotted rugs at comparatively
cheaper rates. The machine is often called a "gun." The
rug's pattern is stenciled on primary backing material. After the
tufting is complete, a backing is attached to protect and anchor
the stitches. (www.handtufted-rugs.com) ; (www.handtuftedcarpets.com)
; (www.handtuftedrugs.in) ; (www.handtuftedrugs.co.in)
Pile : A yarn while spinning is twisted, to give a different effect.
Hooked Rug : Yarns are pushed through the back of a canvas cloth
and pulled back through to form a design.
Rugs : Normally the process of handtufted and handhooked are same.
With a hooked rug, the loops of yarn are left intact to form a characteristically
knobby pile. In a tufted rug, the tops of loops are sheared to expose
the ends of the threads for a softer and plusher pile.
Wash : This process of washing is achieved by mixing natural herbs
in the water. It softens the colors in the area rugs and gives them
the antique look.
Herati : a design
with very common repeated field consists of a flower centered in
a diamond with curving leaves located outside the diamond and parallel
to each side.
Heriz : A design
which depicts a dominating squarish medallion having pendants attached
on both ends. These are being commonly made in Handknotted.
: A natural fiber made from plants. This fiber is frequently used
for warps and pile on flat-woven rugs, such as Jute Cotton and Kilims.
Kelims these days are being made with Jute being used as weft and
wool as warp. Jute rugs are woven with loop or flat construction,
and have become popular for use throughout the home
Kilim : A tapestry
like woven rug with flat weave and no pile.
Kellegi : A
Persian word for a wide runner, for example 6 x 13, 7x20 and so
KPSI : This
is short form of Number of knots per square inch.
Knot : A knot
is formed when wool, cotton or silk yarn is looped around the warp
Loom : The basic
frame used for weaving. These are different for different patterns
of rugs. Two horizontal beams are used to tie the vertical warps
and hold them tightly in place. Looms can be vertical, horizontal,
fixed or mobile. Vertical looms are used for weavings of large rugs
and are stationary. Three or more people can sit side by side and
work simultaneously. In case of dhurries horizontal looms are being
used. For Shaggy rugs, these looms are useful.Hand Tufted have different
size frame, which is called loom in case of handtufted weaving.
Latex : Emulsion
of synthetic rubber or plastic, used in rug adhesives. These are
majorily used in handtufted for cloth to be sticked on back of the
Loop Pile :
During weaving, when the yarn is inserted from back to front side,
its being cut by blade in case of handknotted and with handtufting
machine in case of handtufted. When the yarn is only inserted without
cut, its loop. Loop pile is the same as cut pile before it is trimmed.
If we have same color yarn being used for loop pile and cut pile
Colors will look different.
: This is what in normal terms we call shine of rug. This basically
depends on kind of wool you use and washing if desired.
Medallion : A common rug layout where a large centerpiece called
medallion is the focal point of the design. This is common pattern
of most of the oriental designs.
Knot (7/18; 8/22; 9/25; 10.5/48) : When the rod has been wrapped
for its entire length, a knife is slid along the rod, cutting the
wrapped yarn into two rows of pile tufts. In the Indo-Nepal region,
where they use this Tibetan technique of knotting (thereby called
the "Nepalese knot), rugs are graded using numbers, like "9/25",
"7/18", "8/22 or 10.5/48". The top number of the
"fraction" represents the knots in 9/10 of an inch of the
rug's width. The bottom number represents the knots in 4 1/2 inches
of the rug's length. 0.9" x 4.5" equals 4.05", almost
four square inches, so an easy conversion would be to multiply the
two numbers together and divide by 4 (sq. in.) to get the approximate
weave in knots per sq. in. For example, with a "9/25" quality
area rug, 9x25=225, and 225/4=56 knots per sq. in. These knotting
signifies the quality of rug, by its density. www.tibetianrugs.com
Nap : Surface
or pile of a rug, it may be even loop or cut.
: Rugs made of natural fibers that are usually ivory or neutral
colored. We have lighther & darker shades in natural yarn with
which the rugs are being made.
Ply : Two or
more yarns spun together. Number of yarns spun together to form
a tuft of pile. Measurement of the yarn's thickness.
Pile : It consists
of yarn individually hand tied around the warp string, which forms
the face and body of oriental rugs. Pile may be of wool, wool-silk,
polyester as the case may be. Flat weaves do not have a pile.
: Height of the pile, measured by tenths of an inch from the top
surface of the rug backing to the top of the pile's surface. Some
measure pile height from top of the rug.
:This signifies the consumption of pile in a rug. Its not just weighing
the pile material to determine the weight. Depending upon the case
to case pile weight is calculated from the process of yarn opening,
dyeing, weaving, finishing. There are lot of wastage to complete
these process which are also calculated while taking pile weight.
Prayer Rug :
Kind of small runner of size 3.5x5.5 ft. Prayer rugs historically
have been woven for Muslims to pray on. They still serve this purpose,
and are also used as regular rugs.
: Backing in a tufted carpet into which the tufts are inserted.
The backing is then bonded with latex on its back side to hold the
tufts in place. This is a kind of net cloth which acts as base.
Without Secondary backing primary backing cant stand long.
: Used to describe a weave in which the warp and weft are of equal
tension and spacing. On the surface the warp and weft are equally
Rugs : These are rugs which are made as per the orders with design,
color given by designers.
: Persian term for a scatter rug, normally 2 x 3. Means that very
small size rugs are called pushti.
Ability of carpet pile or cushion to recover original thickness
after being subjected to compressive forces or crushing under traffic.
This quality is highly available in woolen yarn.
Runner : A very
long and narrow rectangular rug. Most runners in today's market
are between 2.5 to 3 feet wide and 6 to 20 feet long, and in some
cases even longer. They are used as coverings for hallways, stairways,
and entrances. For this reason, they are also called Corridor rugs.
Sheen : A carpet
having a high luster, usually produced by a special chemical washing.
This also depends upon the wool being used, in case of natural yarn
and polyester in case of synthetic yarn.
: In tufted carpet, an additional backing is bonded onto the primary
backing with latex.This gives good support to rug.
: Combing process that removes shorter fibers, resulting in a more
lustrous looking yarn. This is the best available quality in wool.
Rug : Shag or shaggy rug is one and the same thing. Long pile
rug which falls from one end to another. The most modern rug, which
are made in different textures, with different pile heights. www.shaggy-rugs.com
: Comes from the cocoon of silkworms. Because it is an expensive
fiber, it is less frequently used as a pile material in handmade
rugs than wool.
: Dyes made chemically beginning in the mid-nineteenth century for
dyeing weaving yarns used in rugs.
Sisal : Plant
of the genus Agave that yields a fiber often used for making natural
rope. The name sisal is used for both the plant and for the fiber.
Sometimes referred to as hemp, sisal is not actually hemp but a
fiber that resembles it. Sisal rugs are natural rugs, woven from
: Two or more tones of the same color in a rug. This look is achieved
either by mixing yarns of different tones or by using the same color
of yarn in a rug with both cut and looped pile. If same color is
shown in loop and cut one will say 2 colors have been used, but
no. Loop pile shows the side color of yarn and cut shows the upper
portion of yarn, which will always be dark.
: This is also called natural dyes or herbal dyes. Nature has given
us many things. Natural dyes are produced from berries, roots and
bark. are primarily
by using various plants (or other natural minerals like iron) to make
some basic colors and then mixing those colors in various proportions
to create the rest of the colors. For example; color Blue is made
from the Indigo plant, Brown is made from Oak bark, etc.They are not
as colorfast as chrome dyes.
Warp : This
is the base material to make any rug. In case of handtufted there
is cloth with warp and weft, otherwise in all other cases warping
is the first step to weave a rug. This is a string of Yarn that
runs entirely from the top of the loom to the bottom to form the
foundation of the rugs which appears, when the rug is finished,
as the fringe at both ends of the rug. Or bqweginning part of a
rug where wool, cotton or silk strands are attached to a Loom vertically,
following the length of a rug. Comprising the structure, parallel
wrap yarns run the length of the rug and are interlaced with wefts.
Washing : A
process in which an area rug is washed (typically a hand knotted
or a hand tufted rug) after it is woven to soften a rug's colors
and increase its luster. The water used may be treated with chemical
solution or tea or herbs to give the rug a distinct effect.This
process is not compulsory in case of handtufted.
Weft : This
moves on warp. Yarns that are woven across the warp of a rug. These
threads run the width (side to side) of the rug, between the rows
of knots, and help to hold the rug together. Weft: Wool, cotton
or silk strands inserted horizontally over and under the warp forming
the foundation of the rug.
Wool : The coat
of sheep. Wool is the most frequently used pile material in handmade
: Before wool is spun into yarn, it is combed, then worsted to improve
its quality by leaving only the longer pieces of fiber for final
spinning. It is used for more intricate patterns. A wool yarn of
long staple with fibers that have been combed prior to spinning.
By combing the wool, we rid the yarn of short fibers and the wool
yarn obtains a greater luster.
Yarn : Cord of twisted fibers. These are the basic portion of rug.
For warp and weft we need cotton YARN. For pile we use wool, synthetic
"We try to furnish whole Globe through our rugs/carpets. Different
countries have different name for Rugs/carpets.
call Tapis ;
Danmark, Great Britain, Greece, HongKong, Íslensku, Korea,
Nederland, Norge, Russia, Sverige, Suomi, Taiwan & USA people
call Carpet ;
Österreich & Schweiz people call Teppich ;
Italiano & Svizzera people call Tappeti ;
call Tapis ;
call Tapete ;
So you may call
the rugs/carpets in whatever name, we make the same for you, as
per your demand, colour and sizes."